An automobile is a wheeled land vehicle powered by an onboard engine in the vehicle. This type of vehicle is designed for road transport of people, but its definition can be extended to freight and up vehicles that can run on any terrain. The etymology of the word explains the variety of definitions, since the word comes from Latin mobilis (moving) and the Greek auto (self), which refers mainly to his character so self-propelled, distinguishes automobile car.
The car is a means of personal transportation among the most popular currently on the planet. The usual capacity of transportation is usually five people, but can vary from one to nine seats. The limited use the term motor vehicle smaller than that of buses and trucks, but sometimes includes light trucks for personal use. Although motor vehicles, motorized two-wheelers are not classified as cars.
Etymology and Vocabulary
The term "automobile" is originally an adjective derived from the concatenation of a prefix Greek autos (meaning yourself) and a Latin suffix, mobile (which moves). It was created when the invention of the first "motor cars" because they were equipped with an engine power source on board, while the others' cars, coaches, carriages, carts, trolleys and other land vehicles were motivated by one or more horses (wagon) or one or oxen.
The noun "car" is attested by 1890, but its kind, today only women, has long been a subject for linguists Open. The French Academy in 1901 voted for the female gender, but the controversy has become extinct long after, the male being certified on time until 1944.
Because of its wide distribution and its use in the most varied backgrounds, the car is now called by many names, familiar or slang: car, car, cash, clunker, taffy, harp, hand drill, wagon or, in Quebec, char.
The principle is to place the car on a rolling chassis and powertrain all accessories necessary for its operation. These elements are controlled by the driver via controls, often in the form of a steering wheel and pedals.
Formed by a chassis and bodywork are an enclosed cockpit with seats for transporting people, cars are usually powered by an internal combustion engine. One or more electric motors can also operate in conjunction with the engine or replace it. The mechanical power supplied by the engine is transmitted to the wheels of the car - the vehicle and supporting elements for its mobility - through a gearbox and transmission components. Suspensions carry about them a resilient connection between the frame and wheels.
The monitoring instruments and controls such as steering wheel, pedals or the speedometer, allow the operation of the automobile. The tank allows the storage of fuel needed to run the engine while batteries or a generator feeding power into the electric organs. Finally, the elements of comfort (air conditioning, radio, ...) and security (lighting, ABS, ...) are accessories in increasing numbers.
The first vehicle function was invented in 1769 by Joseph Cugnot under the name of a truck Cugnot. But it was not until the late nineteenth century and the progress related to the industrial revolution, for personal motor vehicles grew, and finally take their current name in 1890 car. The birth of the car was really made by the adaptation of a steam engine on an independent chassis. The technical and social problems have delayed the development of the automobile early in the nineteenth century. The footprint of the boiler, the inappropriate materials at high pressures, the frame supporting evil vibrations were the key technical barriers, but the real and perceived danger of landmines on the roads at that time has also led to binding legislation as the Locomotive Act in the United Kingdom.
The first cars are produced and marketed steam (The Obedient Amedee Bollee in 1873), but even then, the first prototypes using the new internal combustion engines are made, and benefit from reduced congestion this type of propulsion. At the same time, the development of knowledge related to electricity leads to the achievement of the first electric cars: it has three modes of propulsion in competition at the turn of the twentieth century. The steam is quickly supplanted, but the rapid development of the performance of electric cars is stopped by the lack of progress in storing energy and is ultimately the internal combustion engine, by its steady progress, which the prevails over other methods of propulsion. This is a century of running speed, and there is also an electric car which is illustrated first (The Jamais Contente is the first to surpass the 100 km / h in 1899) before being overtaken by cars with internal combustion engines. It is also the time of birth of the first automobile races, like Paris-Rouen in 1894. The automobile remains is a luxury product, to use binding used on inadequate infrastructure.
Two factors will contribute to its development: the progressive coating of the roads in town and country to facilitate the use of bicycles and cars, and developing new methods of production (Taylorism, Fordism), leading to the first car mass production, Ford T. It definitely raises the imprint of the automobile on society of the twentieth century. Innovations succeed then, but no fundamental change in concept. The outline of the car are set by current series in 1922 with the Lancia Lambda-body self-supporting and independent front suspension, with the Chrysler Airflow in 1934 which introduced the aerodynamics of the car series, Citroen and Development Traction Avant from 1934 and the introduction of disc brakes on the DS in 1955, or by Porsche and gearbox synchromesh cone of 356.
The development of the automobile is clearly marked by crises like the crash of 1929 and the Second World War. They reshuffled the cards in the industry by encouraging mergers, and cause the return to favor of small cars, the pinnacle of this phenomenon has been reached in Germany in the 1950s with micro-cars like the Isetta. This crisis is also the beginning of the war boom, a period marked in all sectors of the automobile by a boom, leading to increased choice, production and accession to the car via Opening the use of credit in the 1960s. This growth in production, but also the size of cars, their speed, is stopped short by the first oil shock. This, coupled with the increase of road safety, will result in long-term relationship between the automobile and society, leading in particular to a strong wave of regulation on the speed permitted. The social aspects (ecology, road safety) become important issues in the design of automobiles at the end of the twentieth century, leading to a new wave of innovation that the downsizing and especially the hybrid launched the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius.
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