A laptop computer, laptop (at home) or laptop is a personal computer through a limited space and weight, can be transported easily.

The first laptop was created by Adam Osborne in 1981, USA. and its first portable model called the Osborne I.

The model described cons dating from 1982, weighs about 11 kg and has a 64 KB RAM subsystem CP / M 8 bits.

Supplied without hard disk, it is equipped with two floppy diskettes of size 5 "1 / 4 with a capacity of less than 80 kb and a formatted screen 5" (displaying green on black). Its footprint was designed to be placed under the passenger seat on the plane to save him the baggage compartment. It came with a set of standard desktop programs for use in a professional setting. It could be equipped with a 12 volt battery making it more autonomous.

Rival will then Kaypro much more rustic in shape making it look like a machine laboratory, but it will be equipped with a screen 9 ", drives increased capacity and often (innovation) of a drive.

Beginning in 1985, with the arrival of Toshiba Papman we begin to distinguish laptop and portable. Portable meant you had to plug the unit into a power outlet to use it, so that meant that the portable machine is also equipped with a battery and thus could be used anywhere. The Papman was the first true portable PC compatible. In this century, with the transportable gradually disappeared, the word "portable" means to turn a "portable".

Buoyed by a wave of netbooks (with screen about 10 inches) and about 15 inch laptops, sales for the first time in Q3 2008 surpassed desktop computers.

General Principles
It must include:

* Motherboard, ROM, RAM;
* Floppy drive (less delivered from the 2000s);
* Hard drive or flash memory (SSD), which saves energy and a faster read access for small files;
* Flat screen (the first were equipped with small-sized CRT diagonal);
* Keyboard (reduced, without a separate numeric keypad for the computer with a screen size below 15 ");
* Different standard connectors to complete their equipment externally (network, USB, etc. ...)
* Pad (touchpad) replacing the mouse and its buttons.
* More and more wireless connectivity and / or Bluetooth as well as many ports as USB, Ethernet, eSATA, ExpressCard ...

The laptops are more expensive than desktop computers (because of the lack of miniaturization and mass production of components), and are slower (because we must avoid too much heat release and to avoid consuming too much energy for a better battery life).

To answer these two imperatives, they are equipped with a processor "crippled" and a small hard disk space (in 2007 2 ½ "). They are, however, can now answer the majority of uses current as the entry level. The intense gaming, 3D modeling, video editing, they are limited by cons to high-end models (especially with a good graphics card and processor as the Intel Quad Core i7).

Processors specially designed to manage energy consumption at the fair are often used, the main problem is the laptop battery life (a few hours at most).

The categories of notebooks:

* Transportable: heavier (between 4 and 7 kg), they embark components more efficient, especially a good graphics card and / or a high-end processor. This is enabled by the possibility of placing the machine in a cooling system to the task. They are not indicated in mobile use but rather represent a large portable computers home to the other.
* Mobile: screen about 15 inches which are about 2 to 3 pounds. They are generally versatile models.
* Ultraportables: 1 to 2 kg, it retains good performance but are more expensive, partly because of the presence of low-power processors expensive (eg platform CULV)
* Netbooks: ultraportable, they are slower, because of less powerful processors such as Intel Atom or AMD Neo, which saves the battery. They are less vulnerable to shocks and sold at a price much lower.
* Tablet PC (Tablet PC): ultraportable equipped with a touchscreen, for example iPad marketed in early 2010
* Bookl

Connecting mobile Internet
The newer laptops (including notebooks, ultra-portable ..) can be fitted or pre-equipped with a chip 3G or 3G +, that connect mobile broadband.
Otherwise, a laptop can be connected to the Internet via a USB key (3G or 3G +), a "USB modem" card or 3G Internet via a mobile phone connectable to the Internet (which then acts on telepone 3G modem connected to the computer via a USB cable or Bluetooth connection. A software must usually be downloaded to allow this type of connection.

See also PDA